Bishop David Poole had a full academic and ecclesiastical career in the midst of Henry VIII's Great Marital Matters, according to the Dictionary of National Biography, although it's not clear from that source how he responded to Henry VIII's efforts to obtain a decree of nullity of his first marriage and how the king resolved that issue, but he must have taken the Oaths of Succession and Supremacy to hold the various offices listed below. Evidently, the date of his birth is not recorded, because he firstappears as a fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, in 1520. He devoted himself to civil law, and graduated B.Can.L. on 2 July 1526 and D.Can.L. on 17 Feb. 1527-1528. In 1529 he became an advocate in Doctors' Commons. He was connected with the diocese of Lichfield, where he held many preferments, first under Bishop Geoffrey Blyth, and then under Bishop Rowland Lee. He was made prebendary of Tachbrook in Lichfield Cathedral on 11 April 1531, archdeacon of Salop in April 1536, and archdeacon of Derby on 8 Jan. 1542-3. He had previously received the high appointment of dean of the arches and vicar-general of the archbishop of Canterbury on 14 Nov. 1540.
Further research and information on the English Reformation, English Catholic martyrs, and related topics by the author of SUPREMACY AND SURVIVAL: HOW CATHOLICS ENDURED THE ENGLISH REFORMATION
Friday, June 2, 2023
Preview: A Bishop Confessor in Elizabeth I's Reign
Wednesday, May 24, 2023
Image Source: The English Convent in Bruges, Belgium
The Priory of Nazareth of the Augustinian Canonesses Regular of St John Lateran, to give it its full title, was founded from St Monica’s Priory in Louvain in 1629 and, with the exception of the colleges for training secular priests at Rome and Valladolid, it is the only English Catholic religious house in Continental Europe, the sole survivor of dozens of communities founded in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries for the sons and daughters of recusants. Virtually all of the communities on the Continent went into ‘exile’ in England in the 1790s, fleeing the French Revolutionary armies (a notable exception was the Benedictine Priory of St Edmund at Douai in France, which was forced out by anti-Catholic laws as late as 1904 and is now located at Woolhampton, Berkshire). The Canonesses of the English Convent were no exception; what was exceptional was that the Bruges community, led by their redoubtable Prioress Mother Mary Augustina More (1732-1807) returned to the Low Countries after the Peace of Amiens in 1802 and have been there ever since.
Monday, May 22, 2023
Preview: Commentary on the Coronation on Treasures of the Faith
Treasures of Faith on Divine Mercy Radio (WDMC, 920 AM) in Melbourne, Florida, 10:00 a.m. Central Time, 11:00 a.m. Eastern Time. Listen live here; the host, Mike Gisondi, will send me a link to the podcast of the show about a week later.
AND: he did send me the link for the St. Thomas More interview we conducted in March!
Tomorrow, however, we'll be talking about the recent Coronation of King Charles III and how Catholic Liturgy and Tradition was certainly reflected in the service--down to the vestments Justin Welby, the Archbishop of Canterbury and other Church of England prelates wore. He had to borrow them from the Catholic Cathedral of Westminster, according to this story (confirmed by Lambeth Palace, the London headquarters of the Archbishop, and a spokesman from the Cathedral) because he could not access appropriate vestments for himself and the other bishops and prelates.
Mike and I will discuss various other aspects of the event, based on some of the comments I made on the Son Rise Morning Show before the Coronation and an update I posted here.
I included the cover of my magnum--and only--opus here because this has been the theme I've been studying, reading about, talking about, and writing about for the past 15 years or so (13 years since Supremacy and Survival was published and a few years before that as I wrote and rewrote it and searched for a publisher!).
The theme: the long-lasting consequences for not just Catholicism but for religion in England after Henry VIII's still-crucial break from Rome. And some of those signs of healing of the break except for one crucial divide: the monarch cannot be a "Roman" Catholic!
The book is readily available from Eighth Day Books here in Wichita, Kansas! And if you want me to sign it before they send, let Warren or any of the staff know and I can easily drop by and autograph it, dedicate it, etc.
Friday, May 19, 2023
Preview: Two Martyrs from Campion's Class of 1581-1582
On Monday, May 22, I'll be on the Son Rise Morning Show at my usual time to discuss Father Henry Bowden's "Mementoes" of two martyrs executed on May 28, 1582. Blesseds John Shert and Thomas Ford were among the 20 priests, including St. Edmund Campion, accused of conspiring against Queen Elizabeth I in the fictitious "Rome and Reims" plot.
Please listen live here at about 6:50 a.m. Central/7:50 a.m. Eastern, or check out the podcast later here.
In 1581, it was not yet Treasonous for an Englishman to return to his native land as a Catholic priest: the 1585 Act Against the Jesuits and the Seminary Priests made it easier to condemn him to death. So when 20 (twenty) priests were arrested in 1581, they had to be charged under existing treason laws. So they were accused of conspiracy, one they'd developed in meetings held in Rome and Reims. Except they hadn't formed any conspiracy, and they testified at trial that they were in England when they were supposed to be in Rome or Reims. Since the guilty verdicts were a foregone conclusion, even after Campion and others had been questioned and tortured, that didn't matter.
On page 175 of Mementoes of the English Martyrs and Confessors, Father Henry Sebastian Bowden recounts Blessed John Shert's last words at Tyburn on May 28, 1582, with the title "Praise and Thanksgiving" and the verse "Offer to God the Sacrifice of Praise and pay thy vows to the Most High" (Psalm 49:14). Blessed Thomas Ford, who had been captured with Campion at Lyford Grange in Berkshire, was still hanging from Tyburn Tree and Shert exclaimed:
"O happy Thomas! Happy art thou that didst run the happy race! O benedicta anima! O blessed soul, thou art in a good case! Thou blessed soul, pray for me."
When he was rebuked for "praying to the dead", he continued:
"O Blessed Lady, Mother of God, pray for me, and the saints of heaven, pray for me."
Then he made an Act of Thanksgiving:
"O Blessed Lord, to Thee be all honor and praise" and rejoiced that he would die "so happy a death for Thy Sake"!
Then he was hanged, drawn, and quartered.
They wanted him to say that he was in England to enforce Pope Pius V's Bull Regnans in Excelsis and further the efforts of the Northern Rebellion. He answered them:
. . . He could not reply as to the legality of the bull of Pius V against Elizabeth, as he was not privy to its circumstances . . .
. . . As to the pope's authorization of the Northern Rebellion, being a private subject, he cannot answer . . .
As Bowden notes, this questioning "was a mere pretext, and Fr. Ford saw through the device . . ."
He, like Saint John Henry Newman centuries later, was a graduate of Trinity College at the University of Oxford. As Bowden notes, Ford began to express "Catholic sympathies," and he "abjured Protestantism and went to Douay" in 1570, and returned to England in 1576. Blessed John Shert was also an Oxford man, earning his degree from Brasenose College. The Catholic Encyclopedia offers this brief outline:
Successively schoolmaster in London, and servant to Dr. Thomas Stapleton at Douai, he entered the seminary in 1576, and was ordained subdeacon. He was ordained priest from the English College, Rome, of which he was the senior of the first six scholars. He left Reims for England 27 August, 1579, and was sent to the Tower 14 July 1581.
Along with Blessed John Shert and Thomas Ford, Blessed Robert Johnson was also executed at Tyburn on May 28. 1582. Father Bowden provides a memento of his martyrdom on page 169: Father Johnson began to pray in Latin and was admonished to "Pray as Christ taught." He replied, "Do you think Christ taught in English?"
The spirit of the martyrs! Keeping their wits about them and being witty too!
Blessed John Shert, pray for us!
Blessed Thomas Ford, pray for us!
Blessed Robert Johnson, pray for us!
Saint Edmund Campion, pray for us!
Image Credit (Public Domain): Portrait of Blessed Thomas Ford in The English Convent in Bruges (NB: the long wound on his chest and the knife protruding, signifying that he was disemboweled at his execution.)
Wednesday, May 17, 2023
The Rogation Days and the Litanies
I mentioned on my Facebook page how happy I was that the Benedictus monthly Mass book for May included the Litany and Prayers for the Rogation Days, May 15, 16, and 17. The Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday before Ascension Thursday, which in our diocese is celebrated on Sunday, are the Rogation Days. As the Fish Eaters website explains:"Rogation" comes from the Latin "rogare," which means "to ask," and Rogation Days are days during which we seek to ask God's mercy, appease His anger, avert the chastisements He makes manifest through natural disasters, and ask for His blessings, particularly with regard to farming, gardening, and other agricultural pursuits. They are set aside to remind us how radically dependent we are on God through His creation, and how prayer can help protect us from nature's often cruel ways. Hence, its mood is somber and beseeching; its liturgical color is purple. . . .
The liturgy for the Rogation Days, during which the priest is vested in purple, begins with Psalm 43:26 --"Arise, O Lord, help us and redeem us for Thy name's sake" -- which is followed by the Litany of the Saints. At the Litany's "Sancta Maria," all stand and a procession begins, which in older times was (and still is in rural areas) usually around the boundaries of the parish, giving to the procession the name of "beating the bounds."
The Litany is followed by Psalm 69, a series of petitions, and the Mass, with readings from James 5:16-20 and Luke 11:5-14. Prayer for God's blessing of farmers' fields so that they yield a bountiful harvest is common.
Friday, May 12, 2023
Preview: A Martyr and a Confessor in York
. . . After priests the second most feared rebel group were female recusants. There was strict surveillance within the city, monitoring movements and keeping track of church attendance.
Once a month, commissioners conducted a survey of all Catholic prisoners within the prison which outlined females to be manipulators and religious converters as well as the largest group to miss church services. Their imprisonments were often stricter than men, excluding the treatment of priests. . . .
Records show that Catholic women harboured the most priests. In 1593, Ann Thwing was imprisoned for harbouring a priest and was sentenced along with another woman, a Mrs Stapleton. Both women were in York Castle until 1600. Mrs Stapleton was pardoned, Ann’s fate is unknown. In 1599, Eleanore Hunt received a death sentence for harbouring Christopher Wharton, a priest who was also sentenced to death at York Castle.
In 1575, a group of York women – ‘Mrs Dorothy Vavasour’, Frances Hall, Janet Geldad and Isabel Porter – became the first women to stand in front of the High Commission and be charged with ’causes ecclesiastical’. This was the refusal to attend church service.
The following year, the Lord President of Huntingdon, Henry Hastings, was instructed by the council to provide further details into church attendance. His list had 33 names, 23 being women, and included Vavasour, Geldad, Hall and Porter. Also on the list was Margaret Clitherow.
Tuesday, May 9, 2023
Lady Joan Vaux and Queen Catherine of Aragon
The British Library is home to hundreds of beautiful illuminated Books of Hours, prayerbooks that were hugely popular during the medieval and early modern eras, as they allowed lay people to develop and observe their own routines of personal devotion. These Books of Hours also provide us with significant insights into the lives of their patrons and owners, who often inscribed these manuscripts with their own beliefs, thoughts and recollections, details of significant events in their lives, and interactions with their most intimate circles of friends and family.
One such Book of Hours (Add MS 17012) stands out for the additions made for one of its female owners. Originally written and illuminated in Antwerp around the year 1500, it subsequently came to London, where it belonged to a prominent woman at the early Tudor court. The volume’s female owner used it not simply as her own personal prayerbook and set of devotions, but also as an autograph book, in which she collected signatures and expressions of favour from numerous members of the court, and even the Tudor royal family. . . .
Depicted by Frank Cadogan Cowper (1877-1958): "Erasmus visiting the children of Henry VII accompanied by Joan Vaux")
I thinke the prayers of a frend the
most acceptable unto God and
because I take you for one of myn
assured I pray you remembre me
Katherine the queen
Catherine’s testimony was a powerful factor. A solemn oath carried great weight, even if she was searching her memory of events at the start of the 16th century. Given the intensity of her first few months in a foreign country, it is unlikely that she would have forgotten such details.
The five months that Catherine and Arthur spent together in 1501–02 must have created intense memories for Catherine. For Henry VII’s other surviving son, Henry, Prince Arthur perhaps stirred different recollections. Henry VIII’s divorce of Catherine was secured without the truth of events in his brother’s marriage-bed being established. . . .
. . . I loved all those whom ye loved only for your sake, whether I had cause or no, or whether they were my friends or enemies. This twenty years I have been your true wife or, more, and by me ye have had divers children, although it has pleased God to call them out of this world, which has been no default in me.
And when ye had me at first, I take God to be my judge, I was a true maid without touch of man; and whether it be true or no, I put it to your conscience. If there be any just cause by the law that ye can allege against me, either of dishonesty or any other impediment to banish and put me from you, I am well content to depart, to my great shame and dishonour; and if there be none, then here I most lowly beseech you let me remain in my former estate, and receive justice in your princely hands. . . .
Monday, May 8, 2023
The Tudors and the Greenwich Church of the Observant Friars
This post ties in with our Son Rise Morning Show discussion today of the correspondence between Queen Catherine of England and Blessed John Forest because it demonstrates the close ties between the founder of the Tudor Dynasty, King Henry VII and the church or chapel of the Observant Friars at Greenwich. From the Medieval Manuscripts blog of the British Library, evidence of that linkage:
Greenwich Palace was a favourite of England’s Tudor monarchs. Beside the palace stood the church of the Observant Friars, founded in 1482. Being so close to a royal residence, the church played a regular part in royal ceremonies — Henry VIII, Mary I and Elizabeth I were all baptised there. This church had political and religious importance, which is reinforced by two manuscripts digitised for the Library’s Medieval and Renaissance Women project. Egerton MS 2341/1 and Egerton MS 2341/2 contain instructions for the glaziers creating the stained glass for the church’s East window. These instructions demonstrate how that window was designed to strengthen the new Tudor dynasty.
Probably originally a single roll, the two manuscripts are undated. They must have been written after 1489, when Margaret Tudor was born, as she is one of the individuals to be depicted in the window. In turn, they presumably pre-date the death of Elizabeth of York, Henry VII’s queen, in February 1503, as the text refers to her in the present tense. They may have been made in the early 1490s, and before the church was consecrated by April 1494.
Saturday, May 6, 2023
Updates/Clarification on the Coronation Oath Issues, Etc
Friday, May 5, 2023
Preview: A Royal Confessor and an Observant Martyr
This time we'll feature an exchange of letters between one whom Father Henry Sebastian Bowden terms a Confessor, one who suffered for the faith during the English Reformation but was neither martyred nor considered for canonization, and a martyr, both from the reign of Henry VIII.
The Confessor, who writes to her priestly confessor, is Catherine of Aragon, and the Martyr is Blessed John Forest, her "venerated Father" who would suffer a unique martyrdom. On page 159, in "A Royal Penitent", Queen Catherine writes to the Observant Franciscan Father John Forest because she thinks he will be executed soon for his early and lasting opposition to Henry VIII's plans to have the marriage between himself and Catherine dissolved so he may marry Anne Boleyn. (You might recall that the Observant Franciscans at Greenwich, so associated with the royal family, supported the validity of that marriage from the very beginning of the King's Great Matter. The couple was married at the Observant's chapel at the Royal Palace on June 22, 1509, after all.)
The dates of this correspondence, which Bowden might have accessed through Don Bede Camm's The Lives of the English Martyrs, are not certain. Bowden does include Camm's work as one of his sources in his Introduction (p. 7). Father John Morris, SJ, who wrote Forest's entry in Camm's book, dates it to sometime in 1534 when Forest was in prison because of his opposition to Henry's actions.
So, perhaps in 1534, by then in Cambridgeshire at either Buckton Towers* or Kimbolton Castle, Queen Catherine of England and Wales wrote her confessor, lamenting that he will die before her, leaving her without his counsel for he was "the man who had taught me the most in divine things." She says she would be willing to suffer "a thousand torments than follow you after a time." She asks for his prayers, for him to "commend me always to God, now and from your place in heaven" and call herself his "most sorrowful daughter." The verse for her entry is Ruth 1:16: "whither thou goest . . ."
Father John Forest answers her from prison that he "was filled with incredible joy" because he "saw how great is your constancy in the faith." He begs her prayers and commends her to Saint Francis of Assisi and especially Saint Catherine of Siena (whose feast we just celebrated at the end of April); especially "when you hear of my execution, I heartily beg of you to pray for me to her. I send to you my rosary, as I have but three days to live." Father Bowden gives his memento the title "One Only Gospel" with the verse from Galatians 1:18 as Forest reminds her to reject any doctrine of "heretics" and remain true to the Church's teaching.festival every January in her honor, with a Catholic Mass celebrated.
According to Camm's book, Forest was released from prison for a time to the Grey Friar Franciscan house near Smithfield until he was finally brought to trial for heresy and burned at the stake on May 22, 1538 at Smithfield. On page 171, on the anniversary of his martyrdom, Bowden remembers him with the title "A Living Holocaust". According to the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia:
On 22 May following he was taken to Smithfield to be burned. The statue of Saint Derfel which had been brought from the church of Llanderfel in Wales, was thrown on the pile of firewood; and thus, according to popular belief, was fulfilled an old prophecy, that this holy image would set a forest on fire. The holy man's martyrdom lasted two hours, at the end of which the executioners threw him, together with the gibbet on which he hung, into the fire.He was beatified by Pope Leo XIII in 1886.
Blessed John Forest, pray for us! and may the Soul of Queen Catherine of England, rest in peace.
Thursday, May 4, 2023
Joseph Mary Plunkett, RIP
I see his blood upon the rose
And in the stars the glory of his eyes,
His body gleams amid eternal snows,
His tears fall from the skies.
I see his face in every flower;
The thunder and the singing of the birds
Are but his voice-and carven by his power
Rocks are his written words.
All pathways by his feet are worn,
His strong heart stirs the ever-beating sea,
His crown of thorns is twined with every thorn,
His cross is every tree.
Wednesday, May 3, 2023
Preview: The Coronation Oaths and the King's Prayer, Etc.
Tomorrow morning, I'll be on the Son Rise Morning Show at my usual time, a little after 6:45 a.m. Central/7:45 a.m. Eastern to talk about the upcoming Coronation of King Charles III on Saturday, May 6th. Specifically, Anna Mitchell or Matt Swaim and I will discuss the promises King Charles will make regarding religion in the Coronation Oath.
How appropriate to discuss this on the Feast of the Catholic Martyrs of England and Wales!! This is why I love to study the history of the Catholic Church in England because that Coronation Oath is a symbol of the lasting effects of the English Reformation, no matter how much the practice of the Christian faith has changed in England during the past few centuries. The purpose of our conversation is just to highlight how the establishment of an official state religion affects the celebration of a national event such as a Coronation.
The person in charge of coordinating this event (as he was for the Queen's funeral last year) is the Earl Marshal of England, the 18th Duke of Norfolk, Edward Fitzalan-Howard, who just happens to be the most senior lay member of the Catholic church, and the most senior peer in the land. The Howard family claims two of the martyrs being celebrated on May 4: Saint Philip Howard and Blessed William Howard.Please listen live here or find the podcast later that day here.
You might remember that many years ago, Charles, the Prince of Wales, spoke about being called the "Defender of Faith" in general, instead of the "Defender of The (Protestant) Faith." This article cites that 1994 comment and discusses other aspects of the Coronation ceremony touching on the matter of the diversity of religions practiced in England and the Commonwealth in contrast to the very Anglican Christian ceremonies that comprise the anointing and coronation of the monarch in England--including Holy Communion, according to the Common Worship of the Church of England (not the Book of Common Prayer).blog reminds us why he received that title:Henry was given the title Defender of the Faith in recognition for his Assertio Septem Sacramentorum (Defence of the Seven Sacraments). Possibly written in consultation with Thomas More (b. 1478, d. 1535) and Cardinal Wolsey (b. c. 1473, d. 1530), Henry’s principal statesmen at this point in his reign, this theological treatise acted as a response to the pronouncements of the German theologian Martin Luther (b. 1483, d. 1546), whose ideas helped to shape the Protestant Reformation movement during the 16th century. . . .
Dr. Francis Young has posted this comparison of the Coronation Rituals of 1953 and 2023 on his blog including some commentary. Here are some pertinent portions:
THE OATH:Archbishop of Canterbury: Your Majesty, the Church established by law, whose settlement you will swear to maintain, is committed to the true profession of the Gospel, and, in so doing, will seek to foster an environment in which people of all faiths and beliefs may live freely. The Coronation Oath has stood for centuries* and is enshrined in law. Are you willing to take the Oath?
COMMENTARY: These words spoken by the Archbishop before asking the King if he is willing to take the oath are new: ‘Your Majesty, the Church established by law, whose settlement you will swear to maintain, is committed to the true profession of the Gospel, and, in so doing, will seek to foster an environment in which people of all faiths and beliefs may live freely. The Coronation Oath has stood for centuries and is enshrined in law.’ The new words would seem calculated to explain that the Coronation Oath need not compromise the King’s commitment to a multifaith society, as well as explaining why the King is still required to take the oath – because it is legally required. The words of the oath to govern his realms and dominions according to their respective laws and customs is unchanged from 1953, apart from the omission of those Commonwealth realms over which the King no longer reigns as monarch. The words of the King’s ecclesiastical oath remain entirely unchanged.
Will you to the utmost of your power maintain in the United Kingdom the Protestant Reformed Religion established by law? Will you maintain and preserve inviolably the settlement of the Church of England, and the doctrine, worship, discipline, and government thereof, as by law established in England?
And will you preserve unto the Bishops and Clergy of England, and to the Churches there committed to their charge, all such rights and privileges as by law do or shall appertain to them or any of them?
The King: All this I promise to do. The things which I have here before promised I will perform and keep. So help me God.
Archbishop of Canterbury: Your Majesty, are you willing to make, subscribe and declare to the statutory Accession Declaration Oath?
The King: I am willing. The King: I Charles do solemnly and sincerely in the presence of God profess, testify, and declare that I am a faithful Protestant, and that I will, according to the true intent of the enactments which secure the Protestant succession to the Throne, uphold and maintain the said enactments to the best of my powers according to law.
COMMENTARY: There was no Accession Oath in 1953 because Elizabeth II took the oath at the State Opening of Parliament on 4 November 1952, before her Coronation; because there has been no State Opening of Parliament since the King’s accession, it is necessary for him to take the Accession Oath at his Coronation.THE KING'S PRAYER:
COMMENTARY: The King’s Prayer is entirely an innovation in 2023 and represents a significant departure from previous practice, since it seems calculated to allow the King to express his personal spiritual convictions.
Friday, April 28, 2023
Preview: Bowden on the Protomartyrs of English Reformation
It's most appropriate that Father Henry Sebastian Bowden presents mementoes of the five Protomartyrs of the English Reformation on five days out of six from May 1 to May 6: the three Carthusian Priors (Saint John Houghton, Saint Robert Lawrence, and Saint Augustine Webster), Blessed John Haile, the parish vicar from Isleworth, and Saint Richard Reynolds, from the Brigittine House of Syon. It's appropriate because they were all hanged, drawn, and quartered on May 4, 1535, and in 2000, the revised Liturgical Calendar for England and Wales moved the feast of all the Catholic Martyrs of England and Wales from the Reformation and Recusant eras from October 25 to May 4; in 2010 the Memorial of the Martyrs was elevated to a Feast on the Calendar.
Therefore on May 1, Anna Mitchell or Matt Swaim and I will discuss Bowden's insights into these great holy martyrs during our series on Bowden's Mementoes of the English Martyrs and Confessors for Every Day in the Year on the Son Rise Morning Show at about 6:45 a.m. Central/7:45 a.m. Eastern on Monday, May 1st.
If you want to see all that Bowden writes about these martyrs, you'll need a copy of the book, because we can only do so much in the time we have! Please listen live here or find the podcast later that day here.
Reading these mementoes, you have to pay attention to the title, the content of the reflection, and the scripture verse to enter into what Father Bowden wants you to remember about the martyrs or confessors--and then, like any good spiritual reading, to think about how to apply to yourself and your life of faith and practice of the Catholic religion.
"the rest of Christendom is in my favor . . . All good men of the kingdom hold with me . . . all the general councils, all the historians, the holy Doctors of the Church for the last fifteen hundred years, especially St. Ambrose, St. Jerome, St. Augustine (of Canterbury?), and St. Gregory (the Great, who sent St. Augustine of Canterbury to Kent?).
At his trial, More called upon the same tradition and authorities against the idea that a monarch could, by setting himself up as the religious and ecclesial authority in his country, divide the Catholic Church from the unity expressed and symbolized by the Vicar of Christ, the Pope.
On May 6, (p. 152), Bowden memorializes St. Richard Reynolds again as "A Model of the Faith", quoting Reginald Cardinal Pole as praising Reynolds for the "sanctity of his life", his "more than common knowledge of the liberal arts" and saying the only thing lacking had been to "give testimony to the truth with his own blood . . . ". The verse for Reynold's that day is 1 Peter 5:3: "Being made a pattern of the flock from the heart."
On May 2, (p. 148), Bowden describes how Saint John Houghton led the Carthusians at the Charterhouse in London through a three-day period of discernment, praying for the Holy Spirit's inspiration. First, they all made a General Confession, then Houghton instructed them on "the virtues of charity, patience, and a firm adherence to God in the day of trial" and "asked forgiveness of each and all", which was reciprocated. Finally, he offered a "solemn Votive Mass of the Holy Ghost".
At the Elevation of the Body and the Blood of Christ, they all heard "the sound of a gentle wind" and all "were filled with a spirit of joy". The title for this memento is "Mass of the Holy Ghost" and the verse is Romans 8:16: "For the Spirit himself giveth testimony to our spirit, that we are the sons of God."
On May 4, with title "Holy Wrath", Bowden tells the story of Blessed John Haile of Ipswich, the only one of these protomartyrs not canonized (?) with the verse from 1 Kings 19:14 (the text in the book on page 150 mistakenly refers to 3 Kings 19:14):With zeal have I been zealous for the Lord God of hosts: because the children of Israel have forsaken thy covenant: they have destroyed thy altars, they have slain thy prophets with the sword, and I alone am left, and they seek my life to take it away.
Bowden describes how in 1533 Haile "was grievously scandalized" at Henry VIII's actions and "reprobated the King's cruelty in oppressing and despoiling the Church" and Father Fern of Teddington and others reported these comments and gave testimony against him. Note that Father Fern gave "state's evidence" against his fellow priest as he was also accused of committing treason. Blessed John Haile was the first secular (non-order) priest to suffer execution for the Faith during the English Reformation.
Blessed John Haile, pray for us!
Saint Richard Reynolds, pray for us!
Saint John Houghton, pray for us!
Saint Robert Lawrence, pray for us!
Saint Augustine Webster, pray for us!