Its destruction gave Sir Christopher Wren the opportunity to design and build a new Anglican Cathedral influenced by the design of St. Peter's in Rome and Val-de-Grace in Paris, along with 50 other Anglican churches.
In the aftermath of the fire, someone had to be blamed, and Catholics were held responsible. A French watchmaker did claim responsibility (as an agent of the Pope) but after he was hung at Tyburn, authorities found out he had arrived in London two days after the fire started. Too late!
Charles II commissioned The Monument to the Great Fire of London, which Sir Christopher Wren also designed. In 1668, words were added to the Monument to reflect fear of Catholics and their role in the Great Fire:
Here by permission of heaven, hell broke loose upon his Protestant city . .During the reign of James II, those words were removed; with the invasion and coup d'etat of the Glorious Revolution they were restored and remained there until 1830 after Catholic Emancipation.
. the most dreadful burning of this City; begun and carried on by the treachery
and malice of the Popish faction . . . Popish frenzy which wrought such horrors,
is not yet quenched.